German government’s three-year Energiewende plan

The German Industry Ministry (BMWi) recently published a chart presenting an overview of the government’s roadmap up to the end of 2016. Craig Morris says it is encouraging to see how much wider the scope is than just the power sector, but he noticed that one thing is still missing.

Traffic Jam

While Germany’s Energiewende has picked up speed, efforts to make the transportation sector more sustainable seem to be stalled. (Photo by Radosław Drożdżewski, CC BY-SA 3.0)


Here is our rendition of the chart in English:

Germany's Energy Roadmap until 2016

It’s impressive in a way for its wide scope. At the top, “EEG” represents feed-in tariffs and the Renewable Energy Act – the thing that people talk about most. The power sector also occurs under transmission grids, distribution grids, and power market design. The first two address the sluggishness of German grid upgrades, while the latter will concern such things as capacity payments to ensure backup capacity to complement variable wind and solar power. Germany does not have a capacity market yet but could implement one by 2016. To learn more about how they work, I recommend Energy Post’s recent summary of the UK’s quite large capacity market announced in July.

Back at the top, we have EU matters. Germany has been a driver of ambitious EU targets for renewables, efficiency, and carbon emission reductions for 2030, and those negotiations are currently being wrapped up. Such targets are crucial for policies that support renewables at the level of member states. Courts repeatedly rule that policy support is legal because member states must fulfill such targets.

Germany has been less helpful, however, in making emissions trading (ETS) stricter. As we point out in the study German Coal Conundrum, a much higher carbon price will be needed for Germany to transition away from comparatively cheap coal power.

In the middle, we see two strategies, one for efficiency and another for the buildings sector. “EED” stands for the EU’s Energy Efficiency Directive, so here Germany is simply doing its duty within the European Union. And when it comes to buildings, there is also the Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings requirement for new buildings within the EU by the end of 2020.

If I am starting to sound critical, that’s because I am. The chart looks exhaustive at first but quickly turns out to be a list of things that most EU member states are also dealing with (or need to). Germany could do more. For buildings, the “retrofit roadmap” to be produced by the end of this year will be most interesting because the German building stock is renewed at such a slow rate. Furthermore, Germany pioneered Passive House architecture 25 years ago. Towns such as Frankfurt have adopted stricter building codes than the federal standard – but why is the federal standard not stricter?

Finally, the elephant in the room is, well, cars. Nowhere does the transport sector appear on this chart. Does the German government have any idea what it wants to do there? Other countries are moving faster, such as Finland. Helsinki recently announced a plan to integrate public transport with carpooling and taxis to reduce the need for car ownership. Germany is unlikely to implement any policy to curb car ownership lest profits at BMW, Mercedes, Volkswagen, Audi, and Porsche be detrimentally affected.

Likewise, while car companies from France’s Peugeot to Japan’s Toyota make forays into hybrids and electric vehicles, German car manufacturers remain asleep at the wheel. They continue to make luxury vehicles that seem out of place towards a sustainable future.

Granted, Germany has a target of a million electric vehicles on the road by 2020. Too bad it only had 14,700 on the road in 2013. But a recent study in German found that Germany might only miss this target by a relatively small margin, reaching 890,000 electric vehicles at the end of this decade.

Think of all the things that could be addressed:

  • charging stations
  • R&D in batteries and other innovations
  • the kind of cross-modal networking envisioned in Helsinki
  • promoting public transportation and cycling in general. Where are Germany’s targets for bike paths, for instance?

Germany could easily do more, as could the EU. Brussels repeatedly calls for greater cross-border power trading, but where is the call for EU transport policy? I can’t take a night train, say, from Frankfurt to Rome or Madrid. Trains continue to be stuck in national systems, and no one is complaining. Instead, Switzerland is the driver behind overnight trains with its City Night Line, but it has been reducing the number of connections in recent years, not increasing them.

So yes, the chart above does have a wide scope. But it is not exhaustive. There is still a lot of room for improvement.

Craig Morris (@PPchef) is the lead author of German Energy Transition. He directs Petite Planète and writes every workday for Renewables International.

by

Craig Morris

Craig Morris (@PPchef) is the lead author of Global Energy Transition. He is co-author of Energy Democracy, the first history of Germany’s Energiewende, and is currently Senior Fellow at the IASS.

5 Comments

  1. Thomas says

    Hello Craig,
    I am not sure about what you are saying in the last paragraph. Cross border trains are quite common. I am at the border and I can go to the Netherlands, Belgium and France directly.

    Furthermore, the agenda above is by the SPD lead economics / energy ministry and includes topics that are also in the domain of the SPD lead housing ministry.

    The transportation ministry is controlled by the conservative CSU. It’s up to them to succeed or fail with their politics… and they also have “plans” for electro mobility. Not much visible action has happend in recent years though… which is a long time in a period of rapid change.

    • Craig Morris
      Craig Morris says

      Night trains, Thomas. Can you take a sleeper from Cologne to anywhere in Italy or Spain? Do you have to change trains even today in Hendaye between France and Spain? Does France still largely block German ICEs?

  2. Greg says

    “Likewise, while car companies from France’s Peugeot to Japan’s Toyota make forays into hybrids and electric vehicles, German car manufacturers remain asleep at the wheel.”

    It looks like this may be changing, the BMW i3 is already being sold, and the following PHEVs are being released later this year:

    Audi A3 Sportback e-tron
    Volkswagen Golf GTE
    Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid
    Porsche Cayenne/Panamera S E-Hybrid
    BMW i8

  3. Kent Otho Doering says

    Craig. I often took an overnight pullman from Munich to Paris- and or Amsterdam which splits at Stuttgart. Leaves at 10:40 p.m. and arrives in Paris at 9:30- or Amsterdam at 9:40 Trains leave correspondingly leave Amsterdam and Paris- and join up at Stuttgart to arrive in Munich at 9:30 a.m. I detest flying-

    Likewise, a three section 2 class pullman leaves Munich every evening at 10:30 for Italy. (Italian rail) It splits at Verona. One section heads east to Venice, another section heads west to Milano, and another heads South to Bologna and Rome. There are no direct pullman services between Cologne and Italy, but you can book a seat on an 5:30 p.m. ICE to Munich, and transfer to the Italian pullman which takes you over the congested Brenner Pass line to Italy-

    The European Union promotes cross border hsr. (For example, the French SCNF and Deutsche Bahn jointly equipped and operate – The Eurostar HSR from London through the Channel Tunnel. It splits at Lille – with one section heading to Brussels- making the trip in under 2´15″ hours and the other section heading to Paris- in 2`30″ The London-Paris- Eurostart then heads south to Lyon and heads east on a new H.S.R. line to Grenoble, and Geneva Switzerland.
    There are increasing amounts of cross border H.S.R. between Germany and France. The problem there was not one of “prohibiting” but rather that the two national railroad systems run on different currents. Most 2nd and 3rd generation Siemens I.C.E. and French TGV trains are dual current- i.e. they can switch from one current to the other.

    For example,
    4 trains a day- 2 German I.C.E. and 2 French TGV currently operate between Paris and Munich, in S.E. Germany, and points in between. At the moment, the trip takes just over 6 hours. However, the French S.C.N.F. is working on completing a dedicated HSR line between Nancy and Strassbourg through the Vogesen Mountains, (the Strassbourg 21 project) and Deutsche Bahn is working on a dedicated HSR line between Stuttgart – and Munich- Stuttgart 21 right though the Schwabian Alb mountains- to Ulm-Neu Ulm Augsburg and Munich… Those two new hsr stretches will complete that part of the TEN 15 – Trans European Network 15 “hsr” magistrale – which will cut hsr times between Munich and Paris from 6´15″ – down to 3´30… which is faster than flying down town to down town. The TEN 15 line is being built out eastwards of Munich- to Rosenhein, (where a southern line to Inssbruck and italy splits) to Salzburg- where another line heds to Slovenia – Croatia, and then Vienna- Budapest- and through Serbia along the Danube to Bucharest – and from there to Sofia and Istanbul. That is, the TEN 15 build out, when completed will run from London – to Paris to Istanbul. Say going by HSR from London to Budapest –you would have to change from the Eurostar to the TGV or ICE trains at Paris, and from the TGV or ICE trains in Munich to the Railjet to Vienna, and change from one Railjet to another in Vienna.

    The HSR platform for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary Slovenia- Croatia, Serbia, and Bulgaria is based on the Siemens “Railjet” platform. The steel aluminum -passsenger cars- have electro-braking in addition to standard Knorr-Bendix air brakes like the German ICE and French lstom T.G.V.- but have no self propulsion. The cars are made in the participating RAILJET countrie´s – by Siemens rail, while the Siemens ultra-efficient TAURUS locomotives- ultra efficient- are used in push-pull configuration. (The Taurus set a still unbroen world speed record for locomotives – at 357. 5 kmh on the new I.C.E. stretch between Munich and Nuremberg in 2007.) These Railjet trains are capable of comfortably rolling at speeds of up to 240 kmh on dedicated H.S.R. track, and otherwse roll on many, alreacy existing “fast rail tracks”at speeds of up to 220 kmh. thorughout eastern Europe.

    One of the most interesting pan European HSR projects is the TEN One- Trans-European Net When completed in 2025- will have interconnecting dedicated H.S.R. running all the way from St. Petersburg Russia to Palermo, Sicily.

    The TEN One is already being built with dedicated tracks. It will run Russian-Scandinavian wide gauge- from St. Petersburg to Talin, Estonia, Kaunas, Latvia- to the Russian Enclave of Kaliniengrad (Ex- German Königsberg) (That is a Siemens, specially winterproofed wide gauge Velaro 3 and 4 platform. (Specially winterproofed means that it can safely operate at down to minus 50° celsium at speeds of up to 250 km an hour which is now he standard HSR system in Russia, Belorussiaand the Baltic countries. (I advisedly note that Russian Rail and Siemens jointly spent over 5 billion Euros in R & D between 1999 and 2005 – to “winterproof” the Siemens Velaro ICE plantform to run in arctic circle conditions- with special alloy axels and wheels that do not get brittle and break up at those – 50° celsium temperatures with additional 250 kmh wind chill factors.) At the Lainengrad/Koenigsburg Russian exclave- TEN 1 passengers can transfer to a standard gauge ICE Siemens Velaro on the same platform- which then runs south to Warsaw Poland, and then west over to Berlin.
    Once in Berlin , passengers will then be able to can transfer to another Siemens Velaro HSR for a fast three hour trip to Munich. (‘The Munich to Nuermberg stretch is already completed, as is the Nurembuerg to Plauen stretch.es. Two new HSR stretches are currently being built betwen Berlin and Plauen- one over – Postdam and Leipzig, and the other – over Dresden and Chemitz- but the Berlin- Munichservice will run over the shorter Potsdman- Leipzig Nurenburg line. (Nurnberg – Munich dedicated HSR is already completed) When the Berlin Nurenberg h.s.r. is completed, it will cut HSR train times between downtown Berlin to downtown Munich- central station to 3 and 1/2 hours.)
    German rail is building out two- traunches of HSR from Munich to Innsbruck, Austria, one dedicated line (mostly for HSR freight- runs s.e. to Rosenheim and then doglegs right- Sout – Stouth west. to Innsbruck up the Inn Valley. Another projected passenger line- runs almost straight South of Munch, through Bad Tolz and through a tunnel system past- Bad Wiesse- and Aachensee, North Tyrol and heads into a long 8 km tunnel through the Northern Alpine ridge- …(currently in planning.) and crosses the Inn River to join the Brenner Tunnel- a 60 km long tunnel- with a stop at Innsbruck and which runs all the way under the Brenner Pass to Sterzing, South Tyrol- Italy- (That Austrian Rail- Italian rail tunnel, is the longest railroad tunnel in the world- and the four track system-stretch over that 60 km. That one project alone will cost over 8 billion Euros!)
    already under construction. From Sterzing, the viaduct- tunnel four track h.s.r. line will continue to Bozano, Trentino- to Verona. When completed, that complex viaduct tunnel system will cut h.s.r. travel time between Munich and Verona (currently slowed odwn in the overloaded Brenner pass rail system) from 6.5 hours to 3 hours.

    This four track trans alpine tunnel viaduct system will add 4 tracks to the congested two track Brenner pass rail line- two for dedicated high speed freight rolling through at 150 kmh – 93.75 mph- and passenger service rolling through at 220 – 137.5 mph.
    (Granite from the tunnels is going towards reinforcing the floodcontrol dikes onthe Inn and Danube rivers in Austria and Germany and flood control on the Po Valley, and higher dikes around the Venetian lagoon. by the way.

    Progress on the ´60 km Innsbruck-Sterzing three tunnel system- under the Brenner is about 15 meters a day on each of the three tunnels- the preliminary exploratory tunnel- and the two main- dual track- tunnels in each direction whichwill expand trackage from two to six tracks through the “needles eye” over the Brenner to meet future freight and passenger volume. Truck on flatcar loading stations will be locaed near Verona and in the Inn Valley south of Rosenheim, Germany.

    The TEN one line ill continues south of Verona to Bologna.- to Florence- Rome, Naples- and Palermo Sicily.
    The heartpiece of that system is that transalpine h.s.r. viaduct tunnel system between Munich- Innsbruck and Verona under the Brenner Pass.
    The TEN Two is based on another 58 km main alpine tunnel- (4 trcks all told) under the Alps between Lyon, France, and Torino Italy- which will then run to Reggio – to Bolgana-where it intersects the TEN one H.S.R. and goes over to the Eastern Italian Adriatic coast at Ravenna- and heads south all the way to Brindisi. That is, the TEN 2 is interconnecting H.S.R. all the way from London- over Paris- to – Lyon, to Turin and Brindisi.
    An West-East North Italian H.S.R. line is being built across to round of the Italian H.S.R. build out running between Turin in theWest- over Milano- to Verona – Venice- and then into Slovenia-.
    I could get into a lot of detail about HSR all the way to Istanbul, and from there to Teheran, and from Teheran to China- which is scheduled to be completed by 2030. That will be the first interconnecting East West Standard gauge line joining East and West.

    The mainthing is that the main countries of the continental European Union are all engaged in serious programs to build out there high speed rail or semi high speed rail systems- France, the Benelux, Germany, non E.U. member Swtizerland, Italy, the iberian Peninsula, (Spanish wide gauge, the Baltic States, (Russian wide gauge) Austria, Poland, Sweden and Finland (Russian wide gauge )

    You still have to change trains between Spain and France simply because their track gauges are different.

    I advisedly note that the Brenner Transalping hsr tunnel will have two tracks heading in each direction, one for non-stop cannonball freight, rolling through at 150- kmh– 90 mph, and for “slower” passenger hsr, rolling at 220 kmh through the tunnels (The freight lines will carry non-flammable goods, and the truck on flatcar service- where the truck tractors and their trailer rigs are fastened down on the cars- (roll on roll off system) The other freight system be single layer containers on flatcars- (unlime the U.S. container on flatcar system which piggybacks containers. (But moves half as fast)

    I advisedly note that in addition to the hSR passenger and freight, convetional passenger and freight willalso continue to be offered. (the new HSR lines simply decongest existing lines and highways. When completed in 2025- the two new transalpine hsr tunnel systems will each be able to handle-up to 12 hsr freight, and 12 local regional, and international hsr passenger trains in each direction- pulsed every every five minutes on each of two tracks in each of the two tunnels- in both directions.
    While the U.S. opts to spend 1.5 trillion U.S.D. on theF 22 program to 2040, Europe is doing massive infrastructure projects in HSR and energy.

    With the HSR goingincreasingly onto new dedicated HSR tracks, that leaves more room on the other well maintained fast rail track systems for more normal fast freight interregio trains, commuter trains.

    Munich lies at about the center of the European Union. at about 150 km SW of the exact Geographcil center of the E.U. soouth of Wurzburg.) Back in the 80s, German rail built a huge new freight yard, and flatcar to truck- truck to flatcar container loading system in a scrub forest area between Munich and the town of Dachau which is state of the art.

    In the summer months during vacation periods- the Deutsche Bahn also has a double decker passenger car- carrying service with pullman cars– for overnight service to the Berlin and the North sea- and to Southern France- (These take some traffic off congested highways)

    The City of Munich also did something else you are not aware of over in Washington D.C..
    Back in the 70s- choking on mountains of garbage, and faced with the need for improved sewage treatment, they built out 3 waste-to-power plants which generate one fifth of its thermodynamic power supplies- 1 small combined cycle power plant- running off- digested sewage sludge methane and -urban compost digested wastes (100 mw), one garbage incineration plant- and even the Munich zoo got a waste feed and manure digester. All three also feed into over 800 kilometers of district- heat- which save over 6 million barrels of heating oil per annum.
    The city consistently used extra-profits from its building out district heat lines- to invest in wind parks and hydro-electric build outs- but also in the build out of mass transportation systems.
    Munich started its subway building and Deutsche Bahn commuter line, and light rail build out back in 1977.
    Today, Mumoch has one cross town commomter rail system interesecting with subway and light rail- with 7 lines extending out into 15 different directions. Likewise, it built out 120 km – of 6 subway lines- (dual consolodated lines inside the middle ring road) – winding their way through the city limites in all direction- with construction still in progress on the U5 and u5 subway systems on the western end of to the city limits and just beyond.a 7th semi-ring releif subway system is currently in the planning phase.
    Likewise, it rebuilt its streetcar network displaced by the subway systems- and now has over 110 kilometers of streetcar lines which they are in the process of rebuilding- namely tearing up the old streetcar lines with wooden cross-ties- laying concrete slabs- and bolting the rails to the 18 inch concrete slabs- on special recycled rubber layers- and paving with asphalt so the rides are very smooth and will stay smooth, especially on theconsolodated line- bus line portions wich interesect with subway stops, such as a short section of Hohenzollernstr. which carries 2 light rail streetcar lines and 3 bus lines intersecting with the U2 -line. (And branch U 5 line during rush hours) They also have 400 single and dual frame very efficient, low entry- t.d.i. diesel busses from Mercedes and M.A.N,
    That is- the Munich Commuter Single Ticket system covers the Deutsche Bahn commuter rail, plus the subways, streetcars, light rail. and bus systems. There are interconnecting suburban bus systems at all outlying subway, and commuter rail systems.

    Not only that, the age of e-mobility is starting. VW, Porsche, Audi, BMW, Daimler, (Smart) Renault, and Tesla al sell e-cars ´now. So Munich Uilities are cooperating with Deutsche Bahn- and are putting up e-car charging stations at all parking lots on its outlying subway stations, and commuter rail systems- Owners of e-cars get a special credit card they insert into the charging stations and they just “plug in” at the “park and ride” parking lots. All commcerial and residential garages- are also being equipped with e-car charging stations.
    (A controversial underground parking station at the Josephplatz square on the U-2 stop for local residents- will feature – e-car charging-at each of the parking spaces- )
    Special bicyclelanes also run through each section of town- which intersect with pubic transport and therre are plenty of bycicyle racs available. Ditto for the main train station, the east Bahnhof, and the new Pasing commuter station- where there are massive cellar space bicycle racks for commuters which are used.)
    The Munich- regional mass transit system has a ridership of 4 million people a day on two way trips.

    A word about Munich´s renewable energy build out. With the completion of its participation in the Dan Tysk offshore wind park built in conjunction with Swedish Vattenvall, Munich Utilities now has very large wind, concentrated solar, own phto-voltaic, and hyro-electric build out- enough to supply 800.000 two person households, plus the needs of the subway and light rail systems.
    Munich Utilites also purchase and redistribute locally installed rooftop solar- – which has a current capacity of over 600 megawatts on sunny days.
    They balance the grid- because they have upgraded two coal fired plants, to natural gas fired fast ramping- combined cycle plants- (hooked up to district heat- to tive them plus-greater than 95% percent gas to power and heat efficiencies. (They ramp down at night 90%- to minimum- turning off the gas turbines, and again- during the da when both wind and solar- are both running.
    So you see, there is much already done to keep the volume of traffic on the roads down by the liberal application of high speed rail, regional rail, subway, and bus.
    And the HSR revolution is continuing. As I said above the TEN one and TEN two lines will be completed by 2025- the year that Munich Utilities have set as a goal to be 100% renwable for power and district heat and urban transit systems..

    Munich supplements its commuter system
    Here, I advisedly note, that Munich also used its profits from its massive district heat system (over 600 million euros a year- to also build out

  4. Kent Otho Doering says

    Craig- as my last post noted, theMunich region ideed has interlocking high speed rail, regional commuter rail, subways, light rail, 400 efficient busses, and extensive cross town bicycle paths- with car sharing systems, bike sharing systems etc.
    It is just as advanced or even more advanced than Helsinkin, and is considered to have the best mass transit system in Europe. And facy that, e-car parking at all commuter train, and outlying subway stations, and even inner city systems.

    Another commenter has noted that German and French carmakers have gotten heavily into the e-car act. Then there are the hybrids and plug in hybrids.

    GM daugher company Opel was the company that developed the technology for the plug in hybrid Chevy Volt. And Opel manufactures the Opel Electra. Porsche just came out with a plug-in diesel hybrid.- the Porsche Panamera – which gets a good 70 mpg. And the lightweight carbon fibre VW XL! is already commercialized and in limited series production as a “collectors item” car. It gets a phenomenal 250 m.p.g.

    There are other ways of reducing – fuel consumption. I don´t know when the last time you rode in a German car. But the latest diesel models- all feature engine shut down at stop lights. Stop for more than five seconds and the engine shuts off. It auitomatically turns on again when your foot off the brake – and it automatically restarts.

    The revolution in diesel fuel systems- with ever increasing efficiencies.. also contineues with the fuels. Diesel already comes dilluted with 10% water, and five percent rape seed oil at the German pumps.
    Italy and France have adopted the “Aquasol” system for high use trucks and busses- which delivers – an unstable emulsion at 30% water 70% diesel… but only for use on high use vechiles like big trucks and city busses because it is an unstable fuel.
    German engineers are working on ways of keeping “Aquasol” stable in truck and bus tans.

    And instead of heat distilling water, they are applying electrocatalytic deminieralisation systems- nano-tube filtration systems which are much more efficient at demineralizing water.
    The trend in German city bus design is not only to diesel -electric hybrids from M.A.N. and Mercedes – which cut diesel consumption in half, but also in aqueous fuel systems.

    I am inolved in a Munich Utility- Munich Urban Transport study- with one hybrid bus- that uses an “aqueous fuel system”.
    Bacin the mid-2000s, researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Mainz experiemented with an aqueous fuel system- running test rig and test vehicles- running- off an aqueous fuel emulsion- which – blended standard diesel (already 10% water,5 % rape seed oil” with a 10 mix of anionic tensides and 40% water- i.e. boosting the water content of diesel to a full 50%. With only minor adjustments to the engines, the 40% diesel, 5% rape seed oil, 10 % anionic tensides and 50 % water mix ran perfectly well in today´s modern tdi engines. Unfortunately the MPI Mainz gave up on the promising approach because they wrongly concluded that heat distilling water needed for the aqueous emulsion would- eliminate the energy advantage.
    The Italian A.G.I.P. andFrench Total “aquasol” system uses excelss refinery heat to distill the water for its “aquasol” with 30% water content.

    The Munich Aqueous Initiative- is taking a radically different approach. They obtain the demineralized water for use in “aqueous fuels systems” by simply collecting rooftop runoff rainwater, and storing it, and by electro-catalyting- nano-tube filtration systems uised by state of the art mass desalinisation systems.

    Thus, Munich will be next be installing “rooftop rainwater-collection systems”– and then using the Cottel “sonic emulsion” system- boost the water content of diesel- from 10 to 40%. That requires minimum retrofit to the current fleet of busses tp keep the emulsion emulsified in the tank. Thjat is one approach. There are other test rig tests – where we have had diesel engines – running at 20% diesel- 80% water emulsions! That requires a preheating of the engine- namely a cold start- off 40 water content diese and after theengine heats up, doing in vehicle- water diesel emulsion.

    Brake energy recycling and and Tubro-thermo coupling plates on theengine block give a lot of extra energy- which can go into “Brown´s gas” hho generation. The latest “hho systems” generate up to 900 liters, or 0.9 cubic meters- of hho per input kilowatt hour.
    The additional “hho – browns gas feed on a vehicle- let´s say a city bus- of 6 cubic meters an hour- during regular operation- plus “aquasol” at 40% for starts, plus “MRISI” cuts the consumption of a standard Munichdual frame city bus (without hybrid drive) from 120 liters a day- down to a phenomenal 12w liters a day- a savings of 9% with “hybrid aqueous fuels systems”. Namely “aquasol for the start- manufactured at the bus depot by Coteel soic emulsion adding the additional “rooftop runoff rainwater”, and a separate tank for demineraliszed water in the bus.
    Running through the numbers again on that.
    1. Rooftop run off rainwater recapture on the streetcar and bus depot buildings for an ample supply of mineral free water.
    2. Retrofit of brake energy recycling and extra battery on T.D.I. busses.
    3. At motor-pool – added water to diesel – via Cottel sonic emulsion system- from 10% water, 5% rape seed oill standard German mix- to aqueous emulsion system- boosting the water content from 10% to 40%. (with an ultrasonic resoance unit on the insulated tank to eep the fuel emulsified.)
    4. (a cooling water – pre-heat of the 40% water content emulsion for reliable diesel ignition.
    5. A brown´s gas “hho system” – (at 0.9 m³ per input kw9 feeding the hho- gas into the engine through the air intake after the air filter.
    6. An EFIE unit- An Electronic Fuel Ignition Efficiency unit – which automatically and correspondingly cuts the electric fuel pump inpui into the engine when the brown´s gas system and the MRISi systems are working.
    7. After engine- warm -up – Magnetic Resonance Ionized Steam Ignition- i.e. the demineralized water is fed onto a steaming unit- and the lineis run through qa ceramic coated spark free permanent magnetized pipe- for “magnetic ionisation of he steam”, and through a second- “electro-magnetic” steam ionisation system.
    8. An extra – ultra sonic air intake piezo resonqtor pulse pulsed at 144 khz in addition to the T.D.I microwave system.

    This drops daily consumption on a big truck or bus by 90%.

    I advisedly note that the the VW-Porsche Group and the FIAT group are merging.

    The VW-Porsche group is comprised of VW-Porsche-Audi-SEAT (Spain)- Skoda (Czech Republic and Slovakia), Lamborhing (Italy) Bugatti (France) Bentley (England) Scania Trucks and Busses, and M.A.N. trucks and busses.

    The FIAT group is comprised of Fiat, Alpha – Romeo, Lancia Delta, Ferrari, Maserati, Renault, and IVECO trucks and busses plus Chrysler U.S.A.

    When they merge, they will form the largest automotive company in the world.
    Both companies are making all electric cars. Both companies are making gasoline- hybrids. Both groups will be making plug-in diesel hybrids.

    And increasingly, both groups will be applying “aqueous fuel systems” in both Otto spark plug engines- and and MRISI for both otto and diesel engines. (with the engines starting off fossil fuel and shifting to “all aqueous mode”.

    The entire product lines of both groups will be mainly producing diesel and otto engine “dual fuel” cars- which cut consumption by 90%- by 2020.

    No let´s get back top the plug in diesel hybrid Porsche Panamera which already gets 70 m.p.g.. (No joking Craig) – and the VW XL1 which gets 252 mpg. Equipped with “aquoeus fuel systems, the Porsche Panamera gets 700 mp.g. and the VW XL 1 gets 2520 mpg.

    (Now VW teamed up with Lichtblick Utilities to make an install micro-coombined heat power systems for multi- family and or small commercial buildings. The system displaces heating oil units with fast ramping natural gas fired combined heat power units. 100.000 such units in Lower Sayony displace heating oil units, averaging 5000 liters heating oil conumption. These100.ß000 units form a fast ramping virtual power plant that is the equivalent of 2 nuclear power plants. However, the Munich Aqueous Initiative is currently in negotation withLichtblick to retrofit all 100.000 units to “all aqueous operations” literally running off collected, rooftop runooff rainwater.
    When all 6.5 million German heating units have been replaced with “aqueous fuel fired” micro-combined heat power s<stems, it will not only displace the heating oil, but putan a full 98 gw of controllable rampable, non fossil, non nuclear- aqwueous fuel powered power ontop the German grid by 2040. Each unit amortizes inside of three years as it displaces both heating oil for heat, and ligntie for power.

    Have a nice day, Craig.

    The next approach entails both emulsions plus- in vehicle "hoo" brown´s gas generation systems.

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